National Platform and Action Plan on Disaster Risk Reduction (myDRR)/
Platform Kebangsaan dan Pelan Tindakan Pengurangan Risiko Bencana Malaysia (myDRR)
Malaysia is exposed to natural hazards of climatic and geological origins and disasters such as floods, landslides, storm surges and strong winds have been increasing over the years. Recognising this problem the Malaysian Government has put in place since the early 1990s, policy, infrastructure and operational mechanisms that transcend from the national, state and district levels to ensure the cohesive participation and involvement of various government agencies and the non-government sector in addressing disaster management. The Melaka Declaration on Disaster Risk Reduction in Malaysia encapsulates the future directions of the country on disaster risk reduction as well as its efforts towards implementing the priority areas of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), 2005-2015.
Evolution of the National Platform – The National Security Council of the Prime Minister’s Department is entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the effectiveness of the disaster management mechanisms that have been put in place. In order to strengthen the collection of actions that are being undertaken in the country, the National Security Council formalised the National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in 2013. This process involved expanding the array of stakeholders to include policy-makers and practitioners from government, universities, non-governmental organisations as well as representatives from the private sector, to take ownership of disaster risk reduction and maintain the continuum between prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery to support the country’s aspiration for sustainable development.
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Malaysia involves the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyse and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, sustainable management of land and the environment and improved preparedness of individuals, community and agencies to face disasters. The National Security Council (MKN) of the Prime Minister’s Department is entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring the effectiveness of the disaster management mechanisms in the country as mandated by MKN Directive 20.
In Malaysia, the disaster management cycle has been modified to suit existing legislative directives, promote consistent practices and accommodate practitioners from multidisciplinary backgrounds. The cycle comprises the following five phases: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
Disaster Prevention (Pencegahan Bencana) focuses on long-term measures for reducing or eliminating risk. Such measures include mainstreaming disaster risk reduction, legislation, land-use regulations, standards, guidelines and insurance as well as measures to reduce underlying risk factors. Aspects of prevention include identification of disaster prone areas and vulnerable populations, development of early warning tools, communication of risks to policy and decision-makers as well as the public, engaging stakeholders and providing regulations on evacuation. Prevention is the most cost-efficient method for reducing the impact of hazards.
Disaster Mitigation (Mitigasi/Peredaan Bencana) is the effort to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether or to reduce the effects of disasters through physical constructions. Mitigation measures encompass structural measures such as the use of technological solutions like flood levees, coastal barriers and other engineering structures.
Disaster Preparedness (Kesiapsiagaan) essentially involves informing the public about disaster risks and what to do in the event of a disaster. Information of this kind can be incorporated into the education system, starting from the kindergarten stage. In the preparedness phase, emergency managers develop plans of action to manage disasters and take action to build the necessary capabilities needed to implement such plans. Common preparedness measures include communication plans, proper maintenance and training of emergency response teams, testing of early warning methods, maintenance of disaster supplies and equipment, development of trained volunteers among civilian populations and casualty prediction for particular kinds of event.
Disaster Response (Tindakbalas Bencana) includes the mobilization of the necessary emergency services and first responders such as fire fighters, police and ambulance crews in the disaster area. These will be supported by secondary emergency services, such as specialist rescue teams. A well-rehearsed emergency plan developed as part of the preparedness phase enables efficient coordination of rescue.
Disaster Recovery (Pemulihan) essentially focuses on the restoration of an area affected by disaster to its previous state. Recovery efforts are concerned with issues and decisions that must be made after immediate needs are addressed. Actions include rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure. Efforts should be made to “build back safer”, aiming to reduce the pre-disaster risks inherent in the community and infrastructure. Effective recovery efforts take advantage of a ‘window of opportunity’ for the implementation of prevention and mitigation measures that might otherwise be unpopular, while the impact of the disaster is fresh in the memory of its victims.
The National Platform and Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction of Malaysia, abbreviated as myDRR, comprises the National Security Council as focal point, government agencies at federal and state levels, international organizations, NGOs, academic institutions, as well as the private sector and media.
Stakeholders involved under the auspices of the National Security Council during the inauguration of myDRR include:
-Representatives of the private sector, who are encouraged to develop Business Continuity Plans consisting of crisis management, business stability and disaster recovery of critical networks and services; and also support the National Disaster Fund that provides financial assistance to those affected by disasters.
-Representatives of local commercial banks, who disburse micro credit aimed at recovering businesses and rebuilding damaged infrastructure due to disasters.
-A cooperative in the form of Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia that provides financial assistance to its members affected by the flood.
-Telekom Malaysia, who introduced a Fixed-Line Disaster Alert System for dissemination of disaster alert in high risk areas through the use of landline to the public.
-MERCY Malaysia, who plays a profound role in exploring more proactive measures for enhancing public awareness in disaster risk prevention, mitigation and preparedness.
-The Ministry of Higher Education, who established the Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Initiative (SEADPRI-UKM) at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia to address knowledge gaps and education as well as promote policy-relevant solutions to reduce underlying risk factors at all levels of planning.
Note: The list is not exhaustive, see list of stakeholders in myDRR stakeholders for new entries after the ongoing stakeholder engagements.
FUNCTIONS OF THE NATIONAL PLATFORM
Functions of the national platform are manifested and guided by the National Action Plans, which was developed in conjunction with stakeholders and is now in the final stages of consultation at the state and local levels.
National Action Plans in myDRR
The following six components encompass proposed measures that fulfil the Hyogo Framework Action Plan (HFA). They serve as a basis for the stakeholder consultation workshop in developing the myDRR.
1. Proposed measures for Disaster Prevention include proactive action such as the following:-
-Create & strengthen national platform for DRR
-Integrate DRR into development policies & planning
-Adopt/Modify legislation to support DRR
-Recognise local risk & decentralise responsibilities & resources
-Assess & develop human resource capacities for DRR at all levels
-Allocate resources for DRR
-Demonstrate strong political determination
-Promote community participation in DRR
-Develop and disseminate risk maps and related information
-Develop systems of indicators of disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales
-Record and disseminate information on disaster
-Support the development and sustainability of capacities
-Develop and improve relevant databases
-Improve scientific and technical methods and capacities
-Establish and strengthen the capacity information and data
-Compile and standardize statistical information and data
-Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation
-Promote the use of recent information communication and space-based technologies
-Develop directories or inventories
-Update international standard terminology
-Improve methods for predictive multi-risk assessments
-Strengthen the technical and scientific capacity
-Integrate DRR in climate change strategies
-Incorporate DRR into urban planning
-Mainstream DRR into planning of major infrastructure projects
-Develop guidelines and monitoring tools for DRR
-Incorporate DRR into rural development planning
-Revise/Develop building codes or practice to foster disaster-resistant structures
-Strengthen the implementation of social safety-net mechanisms
-Develop financial risk-sharing mechanisms
-Establish public–private partnerships
-Develop alternative and innovative financial instruments
2. Proposed measures for Disaster Mitigation include the following:-
-Sustainably use and manage ecosystems
-Implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches
-Promote food security
-Integrate DRR planning into the health sector
-Protect and strengthen critical facilities and infrastructure
3. Proposed measures for Disaster Preparedness include the following:-
-Establish and maintain information systems as part of early warning systems
-Establish institutional capacities for early warning systems
-Develop early warning systems
-Implement the outcome of the Second International Conference on Early Warning held in Bonn, Germany, in 2003
-Research on long-term changes and emerging issues
-Provide information on disaster risks and protection options
-Provide information to the public on disaster reduction options
-Include DRR knowledge in school curricula
-Promote local risk assessment and disaster preparedness in schools
-Promote learning in schools on minimising the effects of hazards
-Develop training and learning programmes
-Promote community-based training
-Ensure equal access to training and educational opportunities
-Engage the media
-Strengthen capacities in national and local disaster management
4. Proposed measures for Disaster Response include the following:-
-Prepare or review disaster preparedness contingency plans at all levels
-Establish emergency funds for response, recovery and preparedness measures
-Engage active participation and ownership of relevant stakeholders
-Promote dialogue and exchange of information at all levels
5. Proposed measures for Disaster Recovery and Rehabilitation include the following:-
-Incorporate DRR into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes
-Ensure displacement programmes do not increase risk and vulnerability to hazards
-Promote diversified income options
6. Proposed measures for Commitments and Reporting include the following:-
-Cooperate regionally and internationally
-Strengthen coordinated regional approaches
-Evaluation and Reporting
NATIONAL PLATFORM MEETING AND ACTIVITIES
See under Events/Activities
NATIONAL PLATFORM FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION SECRETARIAT
myDRR Secretariat/Focal Point
National Disaster Management Agency – NADMA (Agensi Pengurusan Bencana Negara)
Southesast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative (SEADPRI-UKM)